Computers and Technology

What is a Centrifugal Pump?

A centrifugal pump uses a mechanical force to transport fluid by converting the fluid into a flow pressure force using a centrifugal force acting on it. Rotational power usually comes from the engine or electric motor. A centrifugal pump is a simple machine used in many industries and in everyday applications to move fluid from the lower head to the upper head. In 1475, the Italian engineer Francisco Di Giorgio Martini described the clay cultivator as a centrifugal pump. But the original centrifugal pumps were not invented until the 17th century. Dennis Poppin then built a centrifugal pump using straight wines. Later, in 1851, the British inventor John Upold created the Curve Wayne.

Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the chemical industry to move viscous liquids easily. Also, it is less expensive than other pumping equipment. In short, it is an excellent machine for efficient work in a wide variety of applications. These pumps have high efficiency than reciprocating pumps.

Major components of Centrifugal Pump

Various major components of a centrifugal pump:

parts of centrifugal pump

1) Runner:

This is the main part of the centrifugal pump. This gives centrifugal acceleration to the fluid. The stimulus again has its subtypes.

2) Closed impeller:

The closed impeller has vans with cover plates on either side. It is mostly used in obtaining pure water.

3) Semi-open impeller:

It has only the base plate and no crown plate. It is comfortable with liquid-charged debris.

 4) Shaft:

It uses to rotate the impeller. It designs to transmit incoming torque during the start and operation of impellers and other rotating components of the pump.

5) Shaft sleeves:

Sleeve centrifugal pumps prevent the shaft from corrosion and leakage points. Care should be taken not to close the arms at one end.

 6) Cover

This is the airtight path that surrounds the impeller. The casing designs so that the kinetic energy of the water discharge from the outlet of the impeller can convert into a pressure force before leaving the casing and entering the distribution pipe.

Three types of casings are commonly used in centrifugal pumps and they are:

(I) Voltage casings: This is a spiral-type casing in which the flow field gradually increases. Increasing the area of ​​flow reduces the velocity and increases the pressure of the liquid flowing through the casing.

(ii) Vortex casing: In a vortex casing, a circular chamber inserts between the impeller and the casing. This is done to prevent loss of energy due to the formation of AD. The capacity of vortex casing is higher than that of the solvent casing.

(iii) Cover with guide blade: In this cover, there is an array of guide blades around the impeller. The guide blades are mounted in a ring called a diffuser. The design of the guide vans means that the water coming out of the impeller enters the guide without any shock. The area of ​​the guide van increases; This helps to reduce the velocity of the liquid and increase its pressure. Following the guide blades, water passes through the surrounding mantle. In most cases, the casing is centered with the impeller.


  • Normal operation.
  • Low first cost and maintenance.
  • There is minimal stress on the casing.
  • Impeller and shaft only moving parts.
  • Quiet operation.
  • Wide range of pressure, flow, and capacity.
  • Use small floor space in different locations.
  • No leakage problem in centrifugal pumps.
  • These are capable of pumping hazardous and sensitive fluids.
  • There is also no heat transfer problem as there is enough space between the motor and the chamber.
  • They do not lose strength due to friction and they are very flexible in construction and easy to maintain.


  • The magnetic resonance in the centrifuge pump loses less energy.
  • Due to the particle attractive nature of the magnetic drive, the risk of pipe clogging may arise.
  • Vibrations from the surrounding environment can damage these pumps.
  • There is always a risk of cavitation.

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