Health and FitnessMedical

6 New Strategy for Fighting Brain tumor in 2021

therefeeeThe covid-19 pandemic has already taken a toll on our mental health. So, We couldn’t agree more! Being house arrested (national lockdown), working from home, fear of coronavirus infection, wearing double-masks, maintaining social distancing, and washing hands frequently. We are all trying to accept and get adjusted to the new normal. Isn’t it? Moving on, let’s talk about Brain Tumor today.

In the light of “COVID-19,” nobody is talking about patients who are already suffering from other chronic illnesses. What happens to them? How are they getting treated? What about medical assistance for them? All these questions crawl our minds – waiting to hear replies from the experts. 

In today’s time, we are asked to eat a healthy diet and exercise every day to build stronger immunity. This was important until coronavirus infection made it a priority. Well, all this is directly linked to brain cancer as well. 

Let me explain. It was always said that cholesterol leads to heart problems hence one must reduce intake of unsaturated fats and other items in their diet that accumulates cholesterol levels in the body. But brain tumor surgeons suggest that cholesterol also leads to the growth of unwanted tumor cells in the brain causing brain cancer. Surprised? Me too! 

Researchers have proved that cholesterol down-regulates cancer cells in the brain and indicated that the gene responsible for this could be a potential drug goal. The brain tumor treatment cost ranges between $5000 to $7200 in India. And, You are required to stay up to 14 days in the hospital after the treatment is completed. 

What is Brain Cancer?

Brain cancer is the growth of abnormal malignant cells in the brain which affects the ability of the brain to function normally. 

Brain cancer without a doubt is a life-threatening disease. The most common form of brain cancer is glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which comprises 20% of all primary brain cancers. Brain cancer is a complex surgical procedure and it rarely removes the entire cancer cells from the brain. Chemotherapy is also not an effective treatment in treating brain cancer. It fails to penetrate the nervous system to destroy the remaining cancer cells. 

The brain surgery cost in India can range between 4,50,000 INR to 7,50,000 INR. The cost depends on the type of room category taken, type of surgery, all diagnostic procedures, and miscellaneous services. 

Need of new strategies:

Researchers suggested that the aggressive brain cancer survival rate is 14 months. Therefore, this marks the urgent beginning of effective and new treatment to help brain cancer patients live for longer. Several teams of experts collaborated to study numerous genes, proteins, enzymes, and other cellular components. As a result,  These components promote the growth of brain cancer.

Huang’s discovery:

The team of Huang (member of cancer biology research center at Massey) discovered a brain cancer breakthrough– a gene called YTHDF2 that has been identified as a crucial link in a chain that leads to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) production and growth. As It works by triggering a pathway that is set in motion by EGFR, a gene that has a long history of driving cancer progression.

This is a great discovery by Huang’s team, as doctors can now potentially target the YTHDF2 gene by using YTHDF2 small molecule inhibitors to control GBM brain tumor growth and its metastases. Additionally, her team suggests, they can now evade the formation and growth of brain cancer cells by blocking the YTHDF2 gene. As a result, it may be a promising goal for drug growth.

In many cases it is observed that EGFR is highly activated in many forms of aggressive cancer namely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). It’s also found that via a mechanism that deteriorates the LXR and HIVEP2 genes, EGFR activates the inhibition of YTHDF2, which then sustains elevated cholesterol levels for the aggressive growth and production of GBM cells. LXR is used to control cholesterol levels within cells and HIVEP2 is involved in the growth of brain tissue. 

Huang’s study is the first one to discover the theory and it also proved that the DNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m6A), which is present in virtually all cell-based life forms, is involved in brain tumor development and cholesterol metabolism. 

Do all these sound too scientific? Your oncologist can explain the new strategies in simple English. Below you’ll find brain cancer treatment without surgery strategies that can help fight brain cancer in this new year. 

6 New Strategy for Fighting Brain Cancer / Brain Tumor in 2021:

  • CAR T cells:

This is the new strategy developed in the treatment of brain cancer. To simplify Car T cells, a T-cell is an immune cell and CAR T is a gene therapy in which a patient’s own T-cells are altered to diagnose and destroy brain cancer cells. This process is unique compared to other treatments and it involves the removal of T-cells from the patient’s blood to be genetically modified outside of the body.

These newly engineered cells are called CAR T-cells are multiplied in the lab into the hundreds of millions before being injected back into the patient’s body, where they bind to cancer cells and cause an immune response that kills them. The complete procedure takes 1 week’s time. This treatment is also licensed to be used in treating lymphoma and leukemia. 

  • Treatment Vaccines:

Treatment vaccines are intended to aid T-cells in detecting and destroying cancerous cells, particularly those with unique mutations. This method takes advantage of mutations found in brain tumor cells but not in normal cells. Synthetic molecules are produced in the lab to match a patient’s tumor’s mutated DNA sequence to form a treatment vaccine. This will then create antibodies to attack tumor cells.

  • Immunotherapy:

Immunotherapy is the use of one’s own immune system to destroy cancerous cells in the body. It is already licensed in treating other cancers such as melanoma cancer and is undergoing more research to see its impact on other forms of cancers. Even in brain cancer, it has been an effective treatment.

  • Cellular Therapy:

IGV-001 is a type of autologous cell therapy that integrates glioblastoma cells from a patient’s tumor with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide that targets IGF type 1 receptor mRNA (IVM-001). This procedure has been used earlier at various institutions. It is observed that, after this treatment, patients survived for one year and 5 months without cancer progression compared to other traditional treatments. 

  • Engineered viruses:

Some therapies are being created that use disease-free viruses that have been genetically modified. Therefore the viruses are used to transmit specific genes to specific cells. Hence, Allowing them to produce cancer-fighting proteins namely Ad-RTS-hIL-12 and DNX-2401.

  • GBM Agile:

This is a gene called YTHDF2 that has been identified as a crucial link in a chain that leads to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) production and growth. Doctors can now potentially target the YTHDF2 gene. Targeting is done by using YTHDF2 small molecule inhibitors to control GBM brain tumor growth and its metastases. Additionally, they can now evade the formation and growth of brain cancer cells by blocking the YTHDF2 gene. As a result, it may be a promising goal for drug growth.

Conclusion:

To conclude, both EGFR inhibition and cholesterol control are effective treatment options for brain cancer. The new strategies for fighting brain cancer include CAR T-cells, immunotherapy, GBM agile, treatment vaccines, cellular therapy, and engineered viruses. Therefore, Brain tumor tests conducted in India can help determine the type of brain tumor that can assist doctors in providing the best possible treatment. 

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