Potatoes are a semi-degradable vegetable crop. It is cultivated in the Rabi season or autumn. Its yield potential is more than all the crops according to the time. Hence it is also called a famine-destroying crop. Each of its tubers is a storehouse of nutrients, nourishing the body from children to older people. Now potato are being treated as good nutritious food. This is the only crop that helps save the growing population from malnutrition and starvation.
The above-ground land is suitable for potato cultivation, free from waterlogging and weeds, and ensures an irrigation facility. It is also cultivated in the fields vacated from Kharif maize and Agat paddy.
Ploughing The Field
For ploughing the field, various types of tractors are used, such as a Mini tractor for small farms, a Utility tractor for medium farms, and a Heavy-duty tractor for large farms. Tractor Driven Earth Turner Disc Plow or MB After doing one ploughing with plough, one time with disc harrow 12 taba and one-time cult waiter, i.e. Naufara, the field becomes ready for planting potatoes.
Keeping a gap of two days in each ploughing reduces weeds and positively affects the soil. After each ploughing, arrangements are made to remove weeds and weeds. By doing this, the field’s moisture will be maintained, and the area will be free from weeds.
Manures and Fertilizers
Potatoes are a very nutritious crop. It obtains food from the upper surface of the soil. Therefore, it requires excellent organic and chemical fertilizers. In chemical fertilizers, 150 kg of Nitrogen is in the form of 330 kg of urea per hectare. Half the quantity of urea, i.e. 165 kg, is applied at the time of transplanting, and the remaining 165 kg is used at the time of earthing up after 30 days of planting: 90 kg Sfur and 100 kg potash per hectare.
Rate is given. DAP for Sphere or use a single super phosphate fertilizer. Dap Quantity of 200 kg per ha. And the quantity of single super phosphate is 560 kg per ha. And for potash, 170 kg Muriate of Potash per hectare. Treat the rate.
The best time for planting potatoes is after Hasta Nakshatra and till the day of Deepawali. By the way, potatoes are produced from the first week of October to the last week of December. But for higher yield, complete the main planting from November 5 to November 20.
Selection of Strains
Select the varieties according to the need and desire. Rajendra Aloo-3, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Badshah, Kufri Pukhraj, Kufri Sutlej, Kufri Anand and Kufri Bahar are the popular strains for midday age which matures in 90 days to 105 days.
The seed rate of potato depends on the weight of its tuber, the distance between two rows and the distance between two plants in each row, on planting potatoes weighing from 10 grams to 30 grams per tuber, per hectare. Therefore, from 10 quintals to 30 quintals of potato tubers are required.
Method of Planting
When planting potatoes, the soil should be covered with a spade of about 15 cm. Next, a high bed is made, and it is lightly padded with a spade and pressed to the soil so that the soil moisture is maintained and irrigation is also facilitated.
If there is a facility, planting is also done in a large field with a potato planter. It saves both time and labour.
There is a saying – Potato and corn lick water – do not drink. Therefore, giving little water at a time at short intervals is beneficial for high yield. Since manure is kept high, the first irrigation must be done after 10 days of planting but within 20 days. By doing this, germination will be faster, and the number of tubers per plant increases, due to which the yield increases twice.
By doing the first irrigation on time, the fertilizer applied in the field is used by the crops from the beginning as per the requirement. The time of two irrigation seeds can be increased or decreased depending on the soil condition and experience of the field. However, the gap between the two irrigations should not be more than 20 days. Stop irrigation 10 days before digging. By doing this, the tubers will come out clean at the time of digging. Keep in mind that in each irrigation, give water up to half the drain to freeze the remaining part by percolation.
Keeping in view the market price and requirement, potatoes are excavated 60 days after planting. If the potato is to be kept for storage, dig it only after checking the maturity of the tuber. To prevent maturity, the tuber is held in hand and slipped with the thumb. If, by doing this, the tuber’s skin does not separate, then it is considered that the tuber has matured. Digging such tubers does not rot the storage tubers.
The excavation should be completed by noon. The dug tubers are kept in a shady place, not in open sunlight. This is because storage capacity decreases when exposed to sunlight. The digging of all the varieties of potato must be completed by March 15. Excavation is done with a kauri or potato digger. When digging with a sheath, keep in mind that you should not cut the potatoes.
According to the maturity period and adopting the recommended cropping system, 100 quintals per hectare after 60 days of planting, 200 quintals after 75 days, after 90 days, 300 quintals, and after 105 days, the yield is obtained up to 400 quintals per hectare. But if the first irrigation is not done after 10 days of planting and within 20 days, it will reduce the output to half. Different types of procedures and farming equipment are used for the high yield, but the most valuable equipment is a tractor. And the Massey Ferguson Tractor is famous among all the tractors.
If the field is not ploughed deeply, what will be the benefit of ploughing it many times? Therefore it is necessary to plough deeply. For a good crop, it is required to break the soil of cultivation.
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